[ © The Mediterranean Dialogue ]
The COVID pandemic has brought into sharp relief Africa’s digital divide. COVID-induced lockdowns and restrictions on travel made it necessary for government and business meetings and conferences to be conducted virtually, via various online formats. Consumers bought online and, most importantly, schools and tertiary educational institutions moved their courses online.
[ © Hybrid Centre of Excellence ]
The Russian invasion of Ukraine saw new actors and novel activities exploiting cyberspace: Numerous non-state actors, hacker groups and commercial enterprises have entered the virtual battlespace without necessarily being belligerent entities. While states were already struggling with how to regulate activities in cyberspace, the new tropes, techniques and tactics have increased legal uncertainty.