[ © Carnegie Middle East Center ]
Socioeconomic discontent has been rising in several countries of the Middle East and North Africa. In 2019, there was a surge of protests in these countries, including Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Jordan, and Algeria, which did not experience the Arab uprisings of 2010–2011. Beyond calling for changes in their political systems, protesters demanded a comprehensive overhaul of their economic systems as well, denouncing soaring prices, wealth disparities, elite capture of resources and rent streams, and the absence of economic justice.
[ © Clingendael ]
In September 2022, the death of Mahsa Amini marked a major turning point for Iran. Her death sparked nationwide protests that rapidly evolved from calls to discard controversial hijab regulations to calls for the overthrow of the Islamic Republic. The Clingendael blog series Iran in transition explores power dynamics in four critical dimensions that have shaped the country’s direction since: state-society relations, intra-elite dynamics, the economy, and foreign relations.