Main factors shaping North Africa and Sahel are:
- Historical: classic trade routes, historical conflicts, decolonization process creating new states.
- Geographical: wide coasts, deserts and large porous borders.
- Political: institutional weakness, corruption, poor governance.
- Demographic and economic: high birth rates, unemployed youth population, chaotic urbanization process, poverty, underdevelopment wealth inequity, uncontrolled markets, fragile commercial regulation and corruption.
- Social: poor human development (healthy and education), divided and polarized society (ethnic, clans and tribes).
- Security: poor law enforcement, widely extended traditional smuggling activities, ineffective border control, involvement of terrorist networks in the illicit trafficking’s management.