Although there has been significant growth region-wide in awareness of this issue and current levels of cybersecurity are increasing, many challenges persist. Recent noteworthy developments in the region's cyberspace include the rapid digital transformation of many countries, the alarming increase of ransomware activity, large scale adversarial campaigns undertaken by nation-state cyber actors, the establishment of the "pay-to-play" cyber capabilities acquisition model and the proliferation of dangerous misinformation/disinformation, in particular fuelled by a global pandemic.
1. What are the key challenges and vulnerabilities related to cyberspace in the MENA region?
2. How is the cyber threat landscape evolving and how are the defensive solutions effective on this evolving cyber domain in the MENA region?
3. Regarding critical infrastructure sectors and potential vulnerabilities, what are the governments' roles and strategies in addressing serious cyber threats and responding to cyber-attacks?