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Weekly Security Readings 30 May 2019

"This document contains links to articles and/or press agency release from multiple open sources, agencies and academia. The contents, ideas or opinions in the document do not reflect NSD-S HUB or NATO views neither conform to the organization naming convention”



Water scarcity in the Middle East

NATO Strategic Direction South – Hub

Water scarcity poses a global threat, but its effects are more visible in arid or semi-arid regions like the Middle East, which is one of the most water scarce regions in the world. Factors like climate change and persistent conflict, as witnessed in the Middle East, significantly exacerbate water scarcity and provoke security risks such as socio-economic instability and migration. Given the impact of limited water supplies across social, political and economic domains, water scarcity is better understood within the framework of water security. Indeed, it has the potential to significantly degrade regional security from both the human and governance perspective.

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Can peace become affordable

EU Institute for Security Studies - EUISS 

West Africa and the Sahel continue to be plagued by fragility, conflict and violence. Faced with challenges ranging from the spread of Boko Haram to persisting food insecurity, forced displacement, and youth un¬employment, the region needs help. In response, the international community has marshalled significant resources to support governments in fostering the es¬sential preconditions for peace – inclusive security and sustainable development. Such tasks can devour the funds of even the most ambitious aid programmes, while the reality of budgetary constraints calls for a constant search for efficiency.

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Conflict prevention in Mozambique - Can there be peace after the storm

EU Institute for Security Studies - EUISS

There is no shortage of difficult cases for conflict pre¬vention around the world, but Mozambique is a par¬ticularly interesting one and could mark a defining moment for the international community’s approach to this challenge. Since its independence from Portugal in 1975, Mozambique has alternated two long periods of war and peace: first, a 15 year-long civil war between the ruling party, the Frente de Libertação de Moçam¬bique (FRELIMO) and the rebel forces of the Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (RENAMO), which caused over one million deaths and displaced five million people; then, since the signature of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992, almost 20 years of peaceful transition to democracy and steady GDP growth, averaging 7% between 2003 and 2013.

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Climate Security in the Sahel and the Mediterranean: Local and Regional Responses

The Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission - EuroMeSCo

The Mediterranean connects Europe to Africa. The Mediterranean basin is thus an area of interaction between the two continents. However, there is a perception that limits the Mediterranean basin to its strictest geographical sense, that is to say the countries of southern Europe and those of North Africa, which border the Mediterranean. This traditional conception ignores the geopolitical context, which broadens the vision of the Mediterranean basin by including all the spaces that impact it.

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Toward Understanding Violence and Revising Counter-Violence Policies in the Southern Mediterranean

The Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission - EuroMeSCo

Back in 2011, a wave of violence and radicalisation started in the Southern Mediterranean region, which was characterised by a variety of forms, such as unorganised brutality accompanying riots, insurgencies, violent attacks directed against particular targets, or random attacks regardless of the target’s political or social affiliation. This wave illustrated the ability of violence to extend regionally and globally. Its patterns depended on the dynamics and structural strains of the state, differing among Southern Med countries.

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Speaking with the "Bad Guys”: Toward Dialogue with Central Mali’s Jihadists

International Crisis Group

Military operations aimed at defeating the Katiba Macina jihadist insurgency in central Mali have reached a stalemate, with the conflict fuelling ever deadlier intercommunal violence. In this light, some Malians call on the government to engage the militants in political dialogue. Obstacles to such talks are serious: the Katiba Macina’s demands seem to leave little space for accommodation; it has ties to al-Qaeda-linked militants; and the idea of dialogue generates resistance among many Malians and foreign powers.

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Military spending and arms imports by Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the UAE

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute - SIPRI

Tense relations between Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are a major cause for concern regarding stability, security and peace in the Gulf region and in the Middle East more generally.These states seek to play a major role in the Middle East and use arms as a key tool in the pursuit of this aim. Saudi Arabia and the UAE have deployed their armed forces in Yemen against Iran-backed Houthi rebels and in Syria against the Islamic State. Qatar and the UAE have been involved militarily in the conflict in Libya. Iran has sent military forces to support the Iraqi and Syrian govern¬ments. Some anti-government rebel groups in Syria have been supported by Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

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Maritime Security and Its Role in Sustainable Energy Security


Transportation of energy resources is critical for undertaking regular trade of energy. As a large part of the world’s fossil fuel resources are transported by ships, it is important to ensure unhindered movement of ships at sea. However, there are many threats to maritime energy trade especially in vulnerable areas like chokepoints which pose a risk to free movement of ships. Hence, providing maritime security and safety of ships at sea is essential. Maritime security can be considered as an enabler of energy trade and thus has an important role in attaining SES.

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