9 September 2021
"This document contains links to articles and/or press agency release from multiple open sources, agencies and academia. The contents, ideas or opinions in the document do not reflect NSD-S HUB or NATO views neither conform to the organization naming convention"
READING OF THE WEEK
What We Know about Maritime Environmental Crime
The aim of this paper is to review what we know about environmental crimes in the maritime context, consider how we know it, note what data is collected and drawn on, and assess the quality of this information across and between issues. The goal is to provide a concise introduction to knowledge sources for practitioners and analysts, discuss the quality of these sources, and identify inconsistencies and gaps in data.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
Final report of the Panel of Experts on Mali
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
The sanctions regime, established by resolution 2374(2017), consists of a travel ban and an asset freeze that apply to individuals and/or entities designated by the Security Council Committee concerning Mali, as being responsible for or complicit in, or having engaged in, directly or indirectly, actions or policies that threaten the peace, security or stability of Mali.
Justice during the War with the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda
Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)
In February 2021, Dominic Ongwen, a former commander with the Lord's Resistance Army, was found guilty of war crimes by the International Criminal Court despite his potential eligibility for amnesty under the Ugandan National Amnesty Act. This brief presents new research to address the relationship between the justice strategies employed by the Government of Uganda during the civil war with the Lord's Resistance Army, such as the 2000 Amnesty Act, and contemporary transitional justice efforts. Through the Uganda case, this brief explores the impacts of accountability and reconciliation strategies adopted during armed conflict on the potential for lasting peace.
Nigerian Refugees' and Migrants' Use of Smugglers
Mixed Migration Centre
This snapshot focuses on the experience of smuggling among Nigerians on the move in West and North Africa and along the Central Mediterranean Route, drawing on 644 interviews conducted in Niger, Libya and Italy between end 2019 and June 2021. As well as providing valuable insights on the overall dynamics of smuggler use among Nigerians, the findings indicate that Nigerian women's experience of smuggling is very specific, and suggest a possible link to human trafficking, supporting existing reports and analyses.
A Pandemic of Exclusion - The impact of COVID-19 on the human rights of migrants in Libya
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
In places where the human rights of migrants were already at risk as a result of discrimination, xenophobia, criminalization, poverty, exploitation, trafficking, and armed conflict, COVID-19 multiplied these risks. The report highlights five key areas where migrants in Libya and its neighbouring countries faced increased risk of human rights violations and abuses as a result of the pandemic: the lack of access to basic health services; risks in the context of immigration detention; access to decent work, livelihoods, and social protection; border and mobility restrictions; and rising xenophobia.
The energy transition in the Arab Gulf: From vision to reality
The energy transition is having a significant impact on the Arab Gulf states as they work to move away from economic reliance on hydrocarbons exports. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have emerged as regional leaders of the energy transition, both domestically and in their efforts to rethink the ways in which they participate in the global energy system; however, both countries will confront challenges as they seek to establish their global leadership in the energy transition.
Lebanon In Focus
Congressional Research Service (CRS)
Lebanon, a country of 5.5 million people, faces the worst economic crisis in its history amid ongoing political unrest, the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and an August 2020 explosion that severely damaged the port of Beirut and surrounding densely populated areas. In addition, the country hosts the largest number of refugees in the world per capita (over 1 million, mostly Syrians), which has raised social tensions and strained public services. Lebanon's leaders have warned that the country's economic crisis could lead to a collapse of state institutions.
Exploring space technologies for sustainable development
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Space science, technology and data have the potential to contribute in direct or indirect ways to all of the Sustainable Development Goals. This report highlights the potential opportunities of space-enabled technologies for delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals and proposes science, technology and innovation policy options for harnessing space technology for sustainable development. The report also discusses the role of regional and international research collaboration to support such efforts.
Implications of the Energy Transformation for Fragile States
Well appraised of the negative consequences of climate change, this community of practitioners has already stepped up efforts to help people cope with the "double front line of climate change and conflict". However, the people living in fragile states will not only be impacted by changes in climatic conditions. This policy brief offers some thoughts on the implications of the energy transformation for those who work on building peace, preventing conflicts, and providing humanitarian aid to vulnerable people in fragile states.
The New Great Game: Securing critical minerals today for a clean energy system tomorrow
The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS)
The energy transition will require a 400% increase in demand for critical minerals to meet green energy demands, with the vast majority of that demand coming from clean energy applications like electric vehicles and stationary energy storage using batteries. This has set in motion a "New Great Game" to secure critical minerals for the energy transition.