30 December 2020
"This document contains links to articles and/or press agency release from multiple open sources, agencies and academia. The contents, ideas or opinions in the document do not reflect NSD-S HUB or NATO views neither conform to the organization naming convention”
READING OF THE WEEK
The Accountability System for the Protection of Civilians in UN Peacekeeping
International Peace Institute (IPI)
Over the last two decades, UN peacekeeping operations have striven to protect civilians from physical violence. The protection of civilians (POC) is now based on a clear normative and policy framework, and its practical implementation relies on a number of innovative tools, tailored and multidimensional approaches, and the more proactive posture of peacekeepers. On a number of occasions, however, UN missions have failed to prevent or respond to threats despite being aware of the risk, receiving adequate warning of an attack, or being in the proximity when abuses were committed. Numerous reports and investigations into these incidents have highlighted shortcomings in performance and called for more accountability. Despite institutional ambitions, however, there is still limited accountability for the actors involved in protecting civilians.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
Sub-Saharan Migration in Tunisia: The Urgency of a Reform / Overhaul
Brussels International Center
The question of the sub-Saharan presence in the Maghreb countries is not new. Since the advent of "Fortress Europe", the imposition of individual visas on the countries of the South and the implementation of intra-African restrictions, sub Saharan migration to the countries of the north of the continent is a growing phenomenon.
Comparative Study of Policy Responses to COVID-19 in LICs in Africa
IDRC /CANADA / CSEA / SAIIA
This brief assesses the policy responses to COVID-19 among low-income countries (LICs) in Africa. While LICs have adopted expansionary fiscal and monetary policies in the face of economic lockdown, as well as other mitigation strategies, the scale and quality of such responses have been modest compared with those of emerging and middle-income countries. Policy instruments have also varied across countries, in line with the level of development of domestic financial markets and the extent of digital inclusion. Pre-pandemic economic challenges, such as limited fiscal space, high debt levels and inflation, have also contributed to countries’ weak economic responses.
The Renewed Western Sahara Conflict and the Abraham Accord
The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (BESA)
The timing of the unanticipated provocation by the Polisario Front against Morocco could be related to the ongoing diplomatic initiative sponsored by the US for the establishment of full diplomatic relations between Morocco and Israel. Several foreign powers have an interest in disrupting the next stages of the Abraham Accords.
The Implications of a Military Figure as President of Iran
The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (BESA)
In 2021, Iran will be preparing for a presidential election even as it faces an unprecedented economic crisis. Some conservatives argue that a military figure could turn the country around by virtue of his “jihadist spirit” and “military charisma.” While the allure of such a person as president is attractive to some in Tehran, structural impediments remain. The power of the Office of the Supreme Leader will prove a formidable obstacle in the path of any military figure who hopes to ascend to the presidency in the near term.
The Struggle for Control of Southern Syria: Where is Israel?
Institute for National Security (INSS)
Southern Syria is an Iranian "backyard" and a platform for attacks on Israel; for example, it could well serve as an option for revenge following the assassination of Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, head of the Iranian nuclear project. Iran is determined to continue the consolidation of its proxies in the area and enhance its local civilian and military influence.
A Course Correction for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda
International Crisis Group
In October, the Women, Peace and Security principles enumerated in UN Security Council Resolution 1325 turned twenty. But the aims remain largely unachieved. Governments and the UN should stop using this agenda for counter-terrorism work and listen better to what women activists say they need.The UN, donors and states should stop instrumentalising WPS principles in counter-terrorism programming. They should listen to local women’s groups about how to empower women and build peace, involving activists in project design so as to ensure that funding goes to local priorities and that risks are minimized.
Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime Annual Report 2020
Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime
Organized crime has strengthened during the pandemic, while global governance and the rules-based order have suffered. Over the course of the year, through both our expert and field networks, the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (henceforth ‘GI-TOC’) has sought to analyze the changing political economy of crime, presenting new data and trends, as well as policy pieces intended to spark new thinking and debate.
Strengthening Youth Participation in Climate-Related Policymaking
South African Institute of International Affairs
Increasing meaningful youth participation in policy and decision-making processes in Africa is crucial to ensuring more ambitious climate action and implementation. Youth need to be seen as more than simply beneficiaries and rather as key stakeholders and active participants in policy development and implementation processes. Policy participation and formation, supporting groups and networks, and education and capacity building are areas of potential focus for policymakers and civil society to develop more effective youth engagement.