23 December 2020
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READING OF THE WEEK
Gender Power and Progress How Norms Change
Humanitarian Policy Group
This report is about gender norms – the implicit informal rules about appropriate behaviour for people of different genders – that most people accept and follow. It is about the ways in which gender equality, women’s and girls’ rights, and the norms that shape the ability to claim those rights, have progressed over time. It examines how gender norms have changed in the 25 years since the UN’s Beijing Platform for Action on women’s rights was set out in 1995, and their role in progress and setbacks to achieving these rights.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
Réduire les tensions électorales en République Centrafricaine
International Crisis Group
Les élections présidentielles et législatives en République centrafricaine mettent à l’épreuve la stabilité du pays ainsi que la capacité de compromis des acteurs nationaux et internationaux. Si elles ne changeront pas le rapport de force favorable aux groupes armés qui sévissent dans le pays, ces élections pourraient toutefois contribuer à renforcer les institutions publiques et l’Etat sur le long terme. La situation demeure malgré tout complexe : malgré l’accord politique de février 2019 entre le gouvernement et quatorze groupes rebelles, l’insécurité persiste dans plusieurs parties du territoire et les tensions entre le pouvoir et l’opposition sont vives.
Policy Pollination: A Brief History of Social Protection’s Brief History in Africa
Institute of Development Studies
The relatively recent emergence and sustained rise of social protection as a policy agenda in Africa can be understood as either a nationally owned or ‘donor-driven’ process. While elements of both can be seen in different countries at different times, this paper focuses on the pivotal role of transnational actors, specifically international development agencies, as ‘policy pollinators’ for social protection.
Sahel Climate Conflicts? When (fighting) climate change fuels terrorism
European Union Institute for Security Studies (ISS)
Despite routine declarations that connect Sahelian terrorism to climatic and environmental factors, available scientific evidence does not allow us to conclude whether (and what) climatic factors impact (and how) conflict variability and terrorism. False assumptions lead to wrong approaches. Some environmental protection programmes to fight desertification, prevent food crises, and preserve wildlife in the Sahel have ended up contributing to the exacerbation, rather than appeasing conflict and terrorism.
2020: The Yemenite Impasse
Yemen entered its sixth year of conflict in March 2020.Yemeni confrontations and foreign armed interventions on its soil have caused “the worst humanitarian crisis in the world, according to the UN. Independent witness accounts reaching us show all the horror of what is happening in this devastated region where violence has become generalized, liberties trampled by the different warring parties and health conditions catastrophic, not to mention the Covid-19 pandemic, which could severely affect a population that has already been stripped of everything.
Report of the Secretary General United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
United Nations (UN)
The present report provides an account of the activities of the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) for the period from 21 August to 19 November 2020, pursuant to the mandate set out in Security Council resolution 350 (1974) and extended in subsequent Council resolutions, most recently resolution 2530 (2020).
African Energy Outlook 2021
African Energy Chamber
The report explores the forces shaping up the continent’s energy market after the historic shocks of 2020, and analyses the upcoming recovery on the back of the global energy transition and persisting market uncertainties.After a year of historic crisis, the outlook offers guidance and solutions for African energy stakeholders to navigate troubled waters and support a strong recovery in 2021 and beyond.The pandemic notably came at a particularly difficult moment in Africa, exacerbating already challenging market conditions on the back of a competitive American shale industry, the delaying of major projects due to regulatory uncertainty, and increasing global attention to decarbonisation.
How could technological developments influence the future of cyber-crime?
Digital systems and Information Communication Technology (ICT) have become critical in all sectors of economic activity in Europe and beyond. The uninterrupted flow of information and access to the internet now undergird many businesses and the day-to-day functioning of societies. Cyber security incidents, either intentional or accidental, can severely disrupt essential services as well as economic and societal activities.
Digital Disruption in Africa – Mapping Innovations for the African Free Trade Area in Post COVID Times
South African Institute of International Affairs
The COVID pandemic has shown to the world the impact that digital innovations can have in resolving some of the most critical challenges facing the world today. Digital solutions have been the lifeblood that has helped many businesses and economies stay afloat in these times of crisis. In Africa the use of digital solutions is nothing new, indeed the continent is recognized for its utilization of mobile based payment systems including M-Pesa and many other innovations. Digital solutions have also been hailed by the African Union (AU) and other international bodies as critical for Africa’s development and growth