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14 October 2021

"This document contains links to articles and/or press agency release from multiple open sources, agencies and academia. The contents, ideas or opinions in the document do not reflect NSD-S HUB or NATO views neither conform to the organization naming convention"

READING OF THE WEEK

The geopolitics of energy transition: Six challenges for the international balance of power stemming from transitioning away from fossil fuels

Institute of New Europe Foundation

The global transition away from fossil fuels is a "two steps forward, one step back" process. Although a non-linear phenomenon, subject to temporal recessions, regional variables and facing the challenge of a rapidly rising global energy demand, the transition is well in progress and its advancements are quantifiable. It is also one towards renewable sources of energy. As such, it entails geopolitical challenges, risks and opportunities similar in nature to those which accompanied previous energy transformations.

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NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA

Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation concerning Western Sahara

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

The present report covers developments that have occurred between 1 September 2020 and 31 August 2021 since the issuance of UNSG previous report of 23 September 2020 and describes the situation on the ground, the status of political negotiations on Western Sahara, the implementation of resolution 2548 (2020) and the existing challenges to the Mission's operations and steps taken to address them.

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The Impact of the Tigray crisis on Ethiopian and Eritrean Onward Movements within Sudan and to Libya and Tunisia

Mixed Migration Centre

As of 30 June 2021, UNHCR has registered 46,505 refugees in Sudan who fled the Tigray crisis in Ethiopia. Indications from the field, as well as media reporting, reveal the dire situation that refugees face in camps in Eastern Sudan, raising questions about the impact on irregular onward movement dynamics. This snapshot explores the onward movement aspirations and routes of Ethiopians and Eritreans who have left since the outbreak of conflict in Tigray in November 2020 and its reported spillover effects to other regions in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Improving Community Acceptance of Returnees from Boko Haram in Nigeria: What Role Do Trusted Authorities Play?

Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)

How can communities be encouraged to accept former members of violent extremist groups who demobilize from conflict and begin the process of reintegration? Working in communities affected by Boko Haram in northeastern Nigeria, researchers examined whether messages from religious leaders could influence attitudes and intended behaviors, as well as shift perceived social norms, related to community support for the reintegration of former Boko Haram members.

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Paying the Price: Financing the Mozambican Insurgency

Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR)

In northern Mozambique, a group known as Ahlu-Sunna Wa-Jama'a (ASWJ) has spearheaded a debilitating insurgency that has caused mass displacement and loss of life. As the group consolidates its position in Cabo Delgado, questions arise about its position within the country's entrenched illicit trade economy. There is minimal available evidence that the insurgents are being funded directly by this illegal economy, but informal channels for illicit financial flows, like hawala networks, create grey areas through which the insurgents can send and receive money.

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MIDDLE-EAST

The world food programme's contribution to improving the prospects for peace in Lebanon

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

This report investigates where and how World Food Programme's (WFP) cash-based transfer (CBT) interventions in the country make potential peace contributions and looks at how these contributions could be further developed. With the complexity of the conflict and peacebuilding environment in Lebanon in mind, the report emphasizes the importance of taking conflict sensitivity concerns into account and provides 13 recommendations on how WFP's contribution to peace in Lebanon could be enhanced.

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The Ever-Growing Iranian Cyber Threat

Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (BESA Center)

The Iranian regime has been a considerable threat to global cybersecurity ever since 2012, when it committed cyberattacks on US financial institutions in retaliation for the high-profile Stuxnet attack on its nuclear program. In the wake of the Stuxnet attack, the Tehran regime vastly ramped up its cyber capabilities, transforming itself from a third-tier cyber power into one that poses a serious threat.

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TRANSNATIONAL

Navigating beyond gender in the maritime sector

Institute for Security Studies (ISS)

The concept of gender equality has been expanded beyond reference to women to include youth, people of different ethnicities and other marginalised groups. It is recognised internationally as essential to sustainable development, peace and prosperity. However, discriminatory practices persist across the world and the African maritime sector is no exception. Although robust legislation seeks to encourage greater diversity, more needs to be done to include these under-represented groups in a sector that is central to the economies of Africa's littoral states.

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Enhancing financial commitments to disaster risk reduction in conflict contexts

Overseas Development Institute (ODI)

Despite the threat of compounding disaster and conflict risks, progress on disaster risk reduction (DRR) in contexts affected by fragility, conflict and violence (FCV) remains slow, and dedicated finance is widely regarded as piecemeal and insufficient. This report seeks to encourage DFIs and government donors to enhance their financial commitments on DRR in FCV contexts. It concludes by laying out a set of concrete opportunities for enhancing interest and ultimately political support and financial commitments for this nascent yet pivotal global topic.

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2021 State of Climate Services - Water

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Human- and naturally-induced stressors are increasingly adding pressure on water resources, a key prerequisite for human development. In the past 20 years, terrestrial water storage has been lost at a rate of 1cm per year. The situation is worsening by the fact that only 0.5% of water on Earth is useable and available freshwater. Recommendations based on its findings, the report makes six strategic recommendations to improve the implementation and effectiveness of climate services for water worldwide.

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