12 AUGUST 2021
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READING OF THE WEEK
Climate Change 2021. The Physical Science Basis
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) / United Nations (UN)
Summary for Policymakers (SPM)
This SPM provides a high-level summary of the understanding of the current state of the climate, including how it is changing and the role of human influence, the state of knowledge about possible climate futures, climate information relevant to regions and sectors, and limiting human-induced climate change.
Based on scientific understanding, key findings can be formulated as statements of fact or associated with an assessed level of confidence indicated using the IPCC calibrated language.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
Migration and Development: Examining the migration development nexus in Kayes Region, Mali
Advancing Alternative Migration Governance (ADMIGOV)
Mali was one of the West African priority countries due a high number of Malian arrivals in Europe as well as because of its strategic position on key migration routes northward. This study examines the approach put forward by these projects and investigates to what extent migration aspirations are influenced by development assistance. It focuses on Malian residents and returning migrants from the region of Kayes, as well as on migrants in transit in Bamako and the northern city of Gao.
Eliminating Child Marriage in Ethiopia: Emerging Regularities and Practical Norms.
Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
The aim of this working paper is to make a convincing case for the introduction and utilization of the emerging concept of practical norms to explain the large gap between national legal and policy commitments to reduce and eliminate gender-based violence (GBV) and the reality and practice of GBV. This paper goes beyond the dichotomy between social and official norms to exmine what happens in the "in-between spaces".
Personal Ties. Measuring Chinese and U.S. Engagement with African Security Chiefs
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
Global power competition in Africa is about showing up. China has made forming personal ties a central tenet of its engagement, sending its foreign minister on an annual visit to the region, hosting African leaders at its triannual Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), and conducting party-to-party talks. Some scholars point to the concept of guanxi ("connections") as part of Beijing's standard operating procedure in its foreign policy, and note that Chinese officials foster relationships and develop personal networks to advance political, economic, and security goals.
The Urgent Race to Net Zero: Exploring African Priorities for COP26
Southern african Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA)
The 26th Conference of Parties meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26) will take place in November 2021 in Glasgow. It is set to address some of the most pressing challenges in the transition to resilient, carbon-neutral societies. Five years after the signing of the Paris Agreement, countries are yet to reach the adaptation and mitigation requirements prescribed by science, underscoring the need for greater urgency. This briefing highlights key policy processes needed for Africa to support longerterm transformation, as well as the importance of aligning COVID-19 recovery efforts with mid-century climate-resilient visions.
The Nuclear Talks in Vienna: Iran's Procrastination
The Institute for National Security Studies (INSS)
Iran is not in a hurry to return to the nuclear talks with the United States and will not return to negotiations before President-elect Ebrahim Raisi takes office. In the meantime, Tehran is accumulating important knowledge and experience for a decision to progress toward nuclear
weapons, and in the international arena there is increasing doubt regarding the chance of renewing the nuclear deal.
Newest Wave of Middle Eastern Emigration to Africa
The Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM)
The post-2019 economic crisis in Lebanon has accelerated emigration to several Sub-Saharan African states, particularly Côte d'Ivoire. The popularity of African destinations is prompted by the relative ease of access, established diaspora centres, and growing demand in numerous trades. The Lebanese add to the Syrian and Yemeni refugees, many of whom have settled on the Horn of Africa permanently, in the newest episode of Middle Eastern emigration to the continent.
The Role of Clean Hydrogen for a Sustainable Mobility
Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
This paper analyzes clean hydrogen's potential for driving emissions reductions in the mobility sector, focusing on road transportation, shipping, rail, and aviation. Overall, transportation is the second-largest producer of global CO2 emissions, after electricity and heat generation,3 and one of the hardest sectors to decarbonize due to its distributed nature and the advantages provided by fossil fuels in terms of high energy densities, ease of transportation and storage.
Future of Media: Myth of Digital Transformation
Arab News / Research & Studies
According to global research and advisory firm Gartner, digital transformation can refer to anything from IT modernization (for example, cloud computing), to digital optimization, to the invention of new digital business models.
In this two-part whitepaper, Arab News' Research & Studies Unit examines digital transformation in the context of the growth of big tech companies and the consequent impact on the publishing industry and why governments and regulatory bodies need to take notice and action.