03 October 2019
"This document contains links to articles and/or press agency release from multiple open sources, agencies and academia. The contents, ideas or opinions in the document do not reflect NSD-S HUB or NATO views neither conform to the organization naming convention”
READING OF THE WEEK
Change ahead - Experience and awareness of climate change in Africa
As an issue, “climate change” per se does not register among the “most important problems” that Africans surveyed by Afrobarometer want their governments to address. But concerns about the effects of climate change may be embedded in some of the other priorities identified, including water supply (cited by 24% of respondents), food shortages (18%), and agriculture (17%). African countries dominate the bottom ranks in the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative (ND-GAIN) Index (2019), meaning they are the world’s countries most vulnerable to and least prepared for climate change.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
Tunisia at a Crossroads
Perceptions of economic conditions have significantly deteriorated since 2011. Trust in the government and parliament is low, but Tunisians have far more confidence in the security services and the judiciary. Political interest and participation are declining, especially among youth, who are often taking to the streets to voice their frustration. There is a consensus that democracy is not functioning well, but little support for an alternative system of governance. Roughly a third of Tunisians say they are ‘not religious’ including almost half of youth.
Conflict in Mali
Congressional Research Service - CRS
Mali faces intertwined security and governance challenges. Signatory armed groups continue to assert territorial control in much of the vast desert north. At the same time, Islamist insurgent groups have expanded from the north into previously stable central Mali, leveraging (and fomenting) interethnic violence and local resentment toward state actors to recruit supporters. Rebel, terrorist, communal, and criminal armed networks are fluid and shifting, complicating conflict resolution.
Three Scenarios for Sudan - From non-violent revolution to democratic reform
European Union Institute for Security Studies- EUISS
Sudan’s ongoing transition demonstrates the potential of strategic non-violence to bring about societal change. Studies have shown that non-violent resistance campaigns are statistically more successful than violent insurgencies or top-down regime changes in bringing about democratisation; nevertheless, the transition from revolution to lasting reforms remains challenging. The legacies of military rule and internal conflicts mean that the risk of violent escalation and regression to authoritarian governance remains a concern in Sudan.
South Sudan: 'We are at risk and on the run'
On 16 May 2019, South Sudanese took to the streets in Australia, the United States, Ethiopia and Sudan to express their concerns about, and dissatisfaction with, the policies and action of the Government of South Sudan. These peaceful protests were organized by the Red Card Movement (RCM), a nascent South Sudanese diaspora-led youth movement, which is open to any individual who embraces its non-violent approach, and consists mainly of human rights defenders, civil society activists, students, academics and politicians.
Case Study: Israel’s Competition with Iran: 1991 – 2015
Center for Strategic and International Studies - CSIS
Iran and Israel, once partners with warm relations diplomatically and militarily, have never engaged in direct military confrontation. In the aftermath of the Iranian revolution in 1979, Iran and Israel severed official diplomatic ties, and relations between the two states quickly deteriorated into a decades-long gray zone competition, one that continues today. This case examines organizational and policy shifts made by Israel between the First Gulf War and the implementation of the 2015 national defense strategy, with particular emphasis on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon War.
Building everyday peace in Kirkuk, Iraq
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute - SIPRI
Since the end of Ottoman control of the territory of Iraq and the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration in 1921, conflict has emerged in Kirkuk over political and territorial control. Conflict in Kirkuk mirrors and often feeds into ethno-sectarian competition in the central government, making peace in Kirkuk important to the country as a whole. By exploring how, when and by whom acts of everyday peace and conflict are performed, this paper highlights how interventions can be developed to limit the drivers of conflict and maximize the drivers of peace.
Shifting Landscape - Russia’s Military Role in the Middle East
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Since September 2015, Russia’s military intervention in Syria has effectively reshaped the broader regional landscape. Moscow’s power-projection options are widened further by its long-term bases in Syria on the eastern Mediterranean. Russia’s military role in the Middle East cannot be entirely separated from its broader foreign policy and domestic developments.
Advancing UNITED NATIONS Responses to Climate-Related Security Risk
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute - SIPRI
The security implications of climate change have increasingly been debated in the United Nations Security Council. Yet, there is a growing concern by many UN member states about the lack of adequate responses to the risks that climate change poses to peace and security. In recent years, some modest but notable changes at the UN have taken place, of which the creation of the Climate Security Mechanism is the primary example.
Preventing violent extremism in East Africa
Institute for Security Studies - ISS
Initiatives to prevent and counter violent extremism in East Africa are being implemented by numerous organisations and are receiving significant funding to address the drivers behind violent extremism in the region. This report examined such projects to establish their objectives, target groups, activities, theories of change, evaluation approaches, donor organisations and funding amounts. The study also focused on the organisations implementing these projects and how they design them to address the violence in the region.