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READING OF THE WEEK
Munich Security Conference
Munich Security Report 2019
This year, the Munich Security Conference is marking not one, but two milestones. Ahead of the 55th edition of the Munich Security Conference, we are delighted to launch the fifth edition of the Munich Security Report.
NORTH AFRICA / SAHEL / SUB – SAHARA
The meaning of Morocco’s return to the African Union
Institute for Security Studies
On 31 January 2017 Morocco’s King Mohammed VI announced his country’s return to the African Union (AU) after an absence of 32 years. In a speech at the AU headquarters in Addis Ababa, Mohammed VI told heads of state and government attending the 28th Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly that Morocco was ‘coming home’ to its African family.
Empowered Decentralization: A City-Based Strategy for Rebuilding Libya
The Brookings Institution
Libya has floundered since the overthrow of Moammar Gadhafi in 2011, and continues to struggle now. There are elements of a functional economy and governance, but otherwise only a hodgepodge of very weak central institutions and improvised local arrangements, as militias and other actors compete for the spoils of the state. As a result, Libya remains in disarray, representing a potential source of terrorism.
Defying the Odds? Nigerien Responses to Foreign and Domestic Security Challenges
West African Papers
In the volatile central Sahel, the Republic of Niger has remained comparatively stable. This is remarkable for three reasons. First, Niger is surrounded by countries suffering from severe security crises; Libya, Mali and Nigeria are at risk of partial or total disintegration. Due to porous borders and transnational linkages, events in these three countries have inevitable implications for Niger. Second, Niger suffers from the same or very similar long-standing structural disadvantages that are at the heart of security crises elsewhere. Third, Niger is no stranger to instability; since 1993, the country has lived under five different constitutions, seen two Tuareg rebellions and experienced three military juntas in power.
Contemporary Civil-Military Relations in the Sahel
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Civilian oversight of the national armed forces and the ability of civilians to make decisions without interference from the armed forces are necessary conditions for successful democratization. Against this background, this paper examines the origins and the trajectory of civil-military relations and military interventions in politics across the Sahel. It finds that, overall, the region has seen a shift toward greater civilian oversight. Unsurprisingly, in Senegal civilian oversight remains the norm. In Niger, Mali and more recently also in Burkina Faso, elected civilians have reclaimed the seats of power.
Contract farming and public−private partnerships in aquaculture Lessons learned from East African countries
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Historically, agriculture has been a critical sector in economic development as a source of labour during industrialization, and a source of food for an ever more urbanized population. This was recently demonstrated during the Green Revolution in Asia, when land productivity increased thanks to the introduction of new varieties of crops, expanded irrigation and an improved use of fertilizer.
Lebanon: A Human Rights Agenda
Lebanon: A Human Rights Agenda Nine months after his appointment, Lebanon’s Prime Minister has finally been able to form a cabinet that will present its agenda to parliament on 12 February 2019 for a vote of confidence. The parliament itself was elected after a five-year delay; until then Lebanese voters had been barred from heading to the polls.
Saudi Foreign Fighters: Analysis of Leaked Islamic State Entry Documents
ICSR - King’s College London
In early 2016, a huge cache of entry documents containing a wealth of information on new recruits attempting to join the so‑called Islamic State (IS) in Syria was leaked. The vast majority of the individuals named in these records joined the terrorist organisation in the years 2013 and 2014.
Climate Security Making it #Doable
Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.
Climate-related events left no region unaffected in 2018. These events demonstrate how climate change impacts are worsening. Despite increased geopolitical tensions that seem to undermine the Agenda 2030 or the Paris Agreement, global and regional organisations have been able to achieve some progress in addressing and mitigating climate-related security risks. This report, prepared for the Planetary Security Conference taking place in The Hague on 19-20 February 2019, feeds into the conversation by sketching the past year’s trends in relation to climate and security.
Unemployment and Violent Extremism: Evidence from DAESH Foreign Recruits
The Economic Research Forum
The world has experienced a dramatic increase in the number of terrorist attacks in the last two decades, with 106 countries experiencing terror attacks in 2016 and OECD countries suffering their highest number of casualties since 9-11 (Institute for Economics and Peace 2017). The emergence of multi-national terror groups such as Al-Qeada and more recently the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, a.k.a ISIS or Daesh, its Arabic acronym) has made the trans-border nature of terrorism a salient feature. Over 25,000 foreign fighters went to Iraq and Syria between the start of the civil war in 2011 and September 2016 to fight for either Daesh or the Al-Nusra Front (United Nations 2017).